Close sidebar
Skip to content
Mockup

Vectorized iPhone X with shadow mockup

iPhone is a line of smartphones designed and marketed by Apple Inc. The iPhone line of products use Apple’s iOS mobile operating system software.

The first-generation iPhone was released on June 29, 2007, and multiple new hardware iterations with new iOS releases have been released since.

The user interface is built around the device’s multi-touch screen, including a virtual keyboard. The iPhone has Wi-Fi and can connect to cellular networks.

An iPhone can shoot video (though this was not a standard feature until the iPhone 3GS), take photos, play music, send and receive email, browse the web, send and receive text messages, follow GPS navigation, record notes, perform mathematical calculations, and receive visual voicemail.

Other functionality, such as video games, reference works, and social networking, can be enabled by downloading mobile apps.

As of January 2017, Apple’s App Store contained more than 2.2 million applications available for the iPhone.

Content

  1. History and availability
  2. Production
  3. Hardware
  4. Software

History and availability

Development of what was to become the iPhone began in 2004, when Apple started to gather a team of 1,000 employees (including Jonathan Ive, the designer behind the iMac and iPod) to work on the highly confidential “Project Purple”.

Apple CEO Steve Jobs steered the original focus away from a tablet (which Apple eventually revisited in the form of the iPad) towards a phone.

Apple created the device during a secretive collaboration with Cingular Wireless (which became AT&T Mobility) at the time—at an estimated development cost of US$150 million over thirty months

Sales and profits

Apple sold 6.1 million first generation iPhone units over five quarters.

Sales in the fourth quarter of 2008 temporarily surpassed those of Research In Motion’s (RIM) BlackBerry sales of 5.2 million units, which briefly made Apple the third largest mobile phone manufacturer by revenue, after Nokia and Samsung (however, some of this income is deferred.

Recorded sales grew steadily thereafter, and by the end of fiscal year 2010, a total of 73.5 million iPhones had been sold.

Typography

Introducing Wayward Sans, a free handmade font

Typography is the art and technique of arranging type to make written language legible, readable, and appealing when displayed.

The arrangement of type involves selecting typefaces, point sizes, line lengths, line-spacing (leading), and letter-spacing (tracking), and adjusting the space between pairs of letters.

The term typography is also applied to the style, arrangement, and appearance of the letters, numbers, and symbols created by the process.

Type design is a closely related craft, sometimes considered part of typography; most typographers do not design typefaces, and some type designers do not consider themselves typographers.

Typography also may be used as a decorative device, unrelated to communication of information.

Contents

  1. Etymology
  2. History
  3. Evolution
    1. Experimental typeface uses
    2. Techniques
  4. Scope
  5. Text typefaces

Etymology

The word “typography” in English comes from the Greek roots τύπος typos = “impression” and -γραφία -graphia = “writing”.

History

Although typically applied to printed, published, broadcast, and reproduced materials in contemporary times, all words, letters, symbols, and numbers written alongside the earliest naturalistic drawings by humans may be called typography.


The word, typography, is derived from the Greek words τύπος typos “form” or “impression” and γράφειν graphein “to write”, traces its origins to the first punches and dies used to make seals and currency in ancient times, which ties the concept to printing.

Evolution

The design of typefaces has developed alongside the development of typesetting systems.

Although typography has evolved significantly from its origins, it is a largely conservative art that tends to cleave closely to tradition. This is because legibility is paramount, and so the typefaces that are the most readable usually are retained.

In addition, the evolution of typography is inextricably intertwined with lettering by hand and related art forms, especially formal styles, which thrived for centuries preceding typography, and so the evolution of typography must be discussed with reference to this relationship.

Scope

In contemporary use, the practice and study of typography include a broad range, covering all aspects of letter design and application, both mechanical (typesetting, type design, and typefaces) and manual (handwriting and calligraphy).

Typographical elements may appear in a wide variety of situations, including:

  • Documents
  • Presentations
  • Display typography (described below)
  • Clothing
  • Maps and labels
  • Vehicle instrument panels
  • As a component of industrial design—type on household appliances, pens, and wristwatches, for example
  • As a component in modern poetry (see, for example, the poetry of e. e. cummings)

Since digitization, typographical uses have spread to a wider range of applications, appearing on web pages, LCD mobile phone screens, and hand-held video games.

Text typefaces

Traditionally, text is composed to create a readable, coherent, and visually satisfying typeface that works invisibly, without the awareness of the reader.

Even distribution of typeset material, with a minimum of distractions and anomalies, is aimed at producing clarity and transparency.

Choice of typeface(s) is the primary aspect of text typography—prose fiction, non-fiction, editorial, educational, religious, scientific, spiritual, and commercial writing all have differing characteristics and requirements of appropriate typefaces (and their fonts or styles).

For historic material, established text typefaces frequently are chosen according to a scheme of historical genre acquired by a long process of accretion, with considerable overlap among historical periods.

Mockup

Check out this nice coffee package simulation

Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, the seeds of berries from certain Coffea species.

The genus Coffea is native to tropical Africa (specifically having its origin in Ethiopia and Sudan) and Madagascar, the Comoros, Mauritius, and Réunion in the Indian Ocean.

Coffee plants are now cultivated in over 70 countries, primarily in the equatorial regions of the Americas, Southeast Asia, India, and Africa. The two most commonly grown are C. arabica and C. robusta.

Once ripe, coffee berries are picked, processed, and dried.

Dried coffee seeds (referred to as “beans”) are roasted to varying degrees, depending on the desired flavor. Roasted beans are ground and then brewed with near-boiling water to produce the beverage known as coffee.

Coffee is darkly colored, bitter, slightly acidic and has a stimulating effect in humans, primarily due to its caffeine content.[medical citation needed] It is one of the most popular drinks in the world, and it can be prepared and presented in a variety of ways (e.g., espresso, French press, café latte).

It is usually served hot, although iced coffee is a popular alternative.

Clinical studies indicate that moderate coffee consumption is benign or mildly beneficial in healthy adults, with continuing research on whether long-term consumption lowers the risk of some diseases, although those long-term studies are of generally poor quality.

Contents

  • Etymology
  • History
  • Biology
  • Cultivation

Etymology

The word “coffee” entered the English language in 1582 via the Dutch koffie, borrowed from the Ottoman Turkish kahve, borrowed in turn from the Arabic qahwah.

The Arabic word qahwah was traditionally held to refer to a type of wine whose etymology is given by Arab lexicographers as deriving from the verb qahiya (قَهِيَ), “to lack hunger”, in reference to the drink’s reputation as an appetite suppressant.

It has also been proposed that the source may be the Proto-Central Semitic root q-h-h meaning “dark”

History

Legendary accounts

According to legend, ancestors of today’s Oromo people in a region of Kaffa in Ethiopia were believed to have been the first to recognize the energizing effect of the coffee plant, though no direct evidence has been found indicating where in Africa coffee grew or who among the native populations might have used it as a stimulant or even known about it, earlier than the 17th century.

The story of Kaldi, the 9th-century Ethiopian goatherd who discovered coffee when he noticed how excited his goats became after eating the beans from a coffee plant, did not appear in writing until 1671 and is probably apocryphal.

Historical transmission

The earliest credible evidence of coffee-drinking or knowledge of the coffee tree appears in the middle of the 15th century in the accounts of Ahmed al-Ghaffar in Yemen.

It was here in Arabia that coffee seeds were first roasted and brewed, in a similar way to how it is now prepared. Coffee was used by Sufi circles to stay awake for their religious rituals.

Accounts differ on the origin of coffee (seeds) prior to its appearance in Yemen. One account credits Muhammad Ibn Sa’d for bringing the beverage to Aden from the African coast.


This is a cookie notice. You can replace this cookie notice easily using the theme options from within your WordPress control panel. It will only appear once, with acceptance of the form stored locally.
en_USEnglish