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Featured, Illustration

The best graphic designs of mountains for download

A mountain is a large landform that rises above the surrounding land in a limited area, usually in the form of a peak. A mountain is generally steeper than a hill. Mountains are formed through tectonic forces or volcanism. These forces can locally raise the surface of the earth.

Mountains erode slowly through the action of rivers, weather conditions, and glaciers. A few mountains are isolated summits, but most occur in huge mountain ranges.

  1. Definition
  2. Geology
    1. Volcanoes
    2. Block mountains
  3. Climate
  4. Mountains and humans
    1. Mountain societies and economies
    2. Mountaneering

Definition

There is no universally accepted definition of a mountain. Elevation, volume, relief, steepness, spacing and continuity have been used as criteria for defining a mountain. In the Oxford English Dictionary a mountain is defined as:

“A natural elevation of the earth surface rising more or less abruptly from the surrounding level and attaining an altitude which, relatively to the adjacent elevation, is impressive or notable.”

Whether a landform is called a mountain may depend on local usage. Mount Scott outside Lawton, Oklahoma is only 251 m (823 ft) from its base to its highest point. Whittow’s Dictionary of Physical Geography[2] states “Some authorities regard eminences above 600 metres (2,000 ft) as mountains, those below being referred to as hills.”

Geology

There are three main types of mountains: volcanic, fold, and block. All three types are formed from plate tectonics: when portions of the Earth’s crust move, crumple, and dive. Compressional forces, isostatic uplift and intrusion of igneous matter forces surface rock upward, creating a landform higher than the surrounding features.

The height of the feature makes it either a hill or, if higher and steeper, a mountain. Major mountains tend to occur in long linear arcs, indicating tectonic plate boundaries and activity.

Volcanoes

Volcanoes are formed when a plate is pushed below another plate, or at a mid-ocean ridge or hotspot. At a depth of around 100 km, melting occurs in rock above the slab (due to the addition of water), and forms magma that reaches the surface. When the magma reaches the surface, it often builds a volcanic mountain, such as a shield volcano or a stratovolcano.

Examples of volcanoes include Mount Fuji in Japan and Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines. The magma does not have to reach the surface in order to create a mountain: magma that solidifies below ground can still form dome mountains, such as Navajo Mountain in the US.

Fold mountains

Fold mountains occur when two plates collide: shortening occurs along thrust faults and the crust is overthickened.

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Since the less dense continental crust “floats” on the denser mantle rocks beneath, the weight of any crustal material forced upward to form hills, plateaus or mountains must be balanced by the buoyancy force of a much greater volume forced downward into the mantle.

Thus the continental crust is normally much thicker under mountains, compared to lower lying areas.

Rock can fold either symmetrically or asymmetrically. The upfolds are anticlines and the downfolds are synclines: in asymmetric folding there may also be recumbent and overturned folds. The Jura Mountains are an example of fold mountains.

Featured, Polygon

Deer head polygon

This hand drawn polygon deer head is made up of 2 separate elements – a wireframe style outline and a solid shape.

Use each element individually or combined. Create image masks for interesting effects (see the screenshots for examples).

What’s included in the download package:

  • An Adobe Illustrator document with each element on separate layers.
  • The polygon outlines supplied as an individual Illustrator 8.0 eps file
  • The solid shape supplied as an individual Illustrator 8.0 eps file.
  • A sample image mask template supplied as an Illustrator 8.0 eps file.
  • A Photoshop document with each element on a separate layer including an image mask.

Requirements for editing:

  • The layered Illustrator file requires Adobe Illustrator CS or higher.
  • The Illustrator EPS files can be opened in most vector applications.
  • The layered Photoshop file requires Adobe Photoshop CS or higher.
Featured, Pattern

4 websites to get some fancy patterns

Patterns are a useful resource for website design. Filling the background with a full-blown image is no longer a useful solution today as the variety of devices and screen resolutions in the market make it difficult to adapt to them all, although it is true that the latest plugins and scripts offer solutions such as automatic image resizing.

Patterns are similar to those images that are indefinitely repeated either horizontally or vertically.

That makes a lot more sense today where usability is concerned, especially in responsive design. Today we’ve compiled a number of websites that collect many free patterns available for use on the design of your sites and web applications. Patterns Galleries | CSS3 Patterns | Patterns Generators | Examples of websites with patterns

Patterns Galleries:

There are numerous websites that offer complete resource galleries to download patterns: some of them can be found on the sites we list here:


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