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Digital art is an artistic work or practice that uses digital technology as an essential part of the creative or presentation process.
Since the 1970s, various names have been used to describe the process, including computer art and multimedia art. Digital art is itself placed under the larger umbrella term new media art.
The techniques of digital art are used extensively by the mainstream media in advertisements, and by film-makers to produce visual effects. Desktop publishing has had a huge impact on the publishing world, although that is more related to graphic design.
Both digital and traditional artists use many sources of electronic information and programs to create their work.
Given the parallels between visual and musical arts, it is possible that general acceptance of the value of digital visual art will progress in much the same way as the increased acceptance of electronically produced music over the last three decades.
- Computer-generated visual media
- Computer generated 3D still imagery
- Computer generated animated imagery
- Digital installation art
Computer-generated visual media
Digital visual art consists of either 2D visual information displayed on an electronic visual display or information mathematically translated into 3D information, viewed through perspective projection on an electronic visual display.
The simplest is 2D computer graphics which reflect how you might draw using a pencil and a piece of paper.
In this case, however, the image is on the computer screen and the instrument you draw with might be a tablet stylus or a mouse.
What is generated on your screen might appear to be drawn with a pencil, pen or paintbrush.
Computer generated 3D still imagery
3D graphics are created via the process of designing imagery from geometric shapes, polygons or NURBS curves to create three-dimensional objects and scenes for use in various media such as film, television, print, rapid prototyping, games/simulations and special visual effects.
The technology can enable collaboration, lending itself to sharing and augmenting by a creative effort similar to the open source movement, and the creative commons in which users can collaborate in a project to create unique pieces of art.
Computer generated animated imagery
Computer-generated animations are animations created with a computer, from digital models created by the 3D artists or procedurally generated.
The term is usually applied to works created entirely with a computer. Movies make heavy use of computer-generated graphics; they are called computer-generated imagery (CGI) in the film industry.
- In the 1990s, and early 2000s CGI advanced enough so that for the first time it was possible to create realistic 3D computer animation, although films had been using extensive computer images since the mid-70s.
A number of modern films have been noted for their heavy use of photo realistic CGI.
Digital installation art
Digital installation art constitutes a broad field of activity and incorporates many forms. Some resemble video installations, particularly large scale works involving projections and live video capture.
By using projection techniques that enhance an audiences impression of sensory envelopment, many digital installations attempt to create immersive environments.
In manufacturing and design, a mockup, or mock-up, is a scale or full-size model of a design or device, used for teaching, demonstration, design evaluation, promotion, and other purposes. A mockup is a prototype if it provides at least part of the functionality of a system and enables testing of a design.
Mock-ups are used by designers mainly to acquire feedback from users. Mock-ups address the idea captured in a popular engineering one-liner: You can fix it now on the drafting board with an eraser or you can fix it later on the construction site with a sledge hammer.
- Consumer goods
- Furniture and cabinetry
Mockups are used as design tools virtually everywhere a new product is designed.
Mockups are used in the automotive device industry as part of the product development process, where dimensions, overall impression, and shapes are tested in a wind tunnel experiment. They can also be used to test consumer reaction.
Mockups are used in the consumer goods industry as part of the product development process, where dimensions, human factors, overall impression, and commercial art are tested in marketing research.
Furniture and cabinetry
Mockups are commonly required by designers, architects, and end users for custom furniture and cabinetry.
The intention is often to produce a full-sized replica, using inexpensive materials in order to verify a design. Mockups are often used to determine the proportions of the piece, relating to various dimensions of the piece itself, or to fit the piece into a specific space or room.
The ability to see how the design of the piece relates to the rest of the space is also an important factor in determining size and design.
When designing a functional piece of furniture, such as a desk or table, mockups can be used to test whether they suit typical human shapes and sizes. Designs that fail to consider these issues may not be practical to use.
Mockups can also be used to test color, finish, and design details which cannot be visualized from the initial drawings and sketches. Mockups used for this purpose can be on a reduced scale.
At the beginning of a project’s construction, architects will often direct contractors to provide material mockups for review. These allow the design team to review material and color selections, and make modifications before product orders are placed.
Architectural mockups can also be used for performance testing (such as water penetration at window installations, for example) and help inform the subcontractors how details are to be installed.
A mountain is a large landform that rises above the surrounding land in a limited area, usually in the form of a peak. A mountain is generally steeper than a hill. Mountains are formed through tectonic forces or volcanism. These forces can locally raise the surface of the earth.
Mountains erode slowly through the action of rivers, weather conditions, and glaciers. A few mountains are isolated summits, but most occur in huge mountain ranges.
- Block mountains
- Mountains and humans
- Mountain societies and economies
There is no universally accepted definition of a mountain. Elevation, volume, relief, steepness, spacing and continuity have been used as criteria for defining a mountain. In the Oxford English Dictionary a mountain is defined as:
“A natural elevation of the earth surface rising more or less abruptly from the surrounding level and attaining an altitude which, relatively to the adjacent elevation, is impressive or notable.”
Whether a landform is called a mountain may depend on local usage. Mount Scott outside Lawton, Oklahoma is only 251 m (823 ft) from its base to its highest point. Whittow’s Dictionary of Physical Geography states “Some authorities regard eminences above 600 metres (2,000 ft) as mountains, those below being referred to as hills.”
There are three main types of mountains: volcanic, fold, and block. All three types are formed from plate tectonics: when portions of the Earth’s crust move, crumple, and dive. Compressional forces, isostatic uplift and intrusion of igneous matter forces surface rock upward, creating a landform higher than the surrounding features.
The height of the feature makes it either a hill or, if higher and steeper, a mountain.
Major mountains tend to occur in long linear arcs, indicating tectonic plate boundaries and activity.
Volcanoes are formed when a plate is pushed below another plate, or at a mid-ocean ridge or hotspot. At a depth of around 100 km, melting occurs in rock above the slab (due to the addition of water), and forms magma that reaches the surface. When the magma reaches the surface, it often builds a volcanic mountain, such as a shield volcano or a stratovolcano.
Examples of volcanoes include Mount Fuji in Japan and Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines. The magma does not have to reach the surface in order to create a mountain: magma that solidifies below ground can still form dome mountains, such as Navajo Mountain in the US.
Fold mountains occur when two plates collide: shortening occurs along thrust faults and the crust is overthickened.
Since the less dense continental crust “floats” on the denser mantle rocks beneath, the weight of any crustal material forced upward to form hills, plateaus or mountains must be balanced by the buoyancy force of a much greater volume forced downward into the mantle.
Thus the continental crust is normally much thicker under mountains, compared to lower lying areas.
Rock can fold either symmetrically or asymmetrically. The upfolds are anticlines and the downfolds are synclines: in asymmetric folding there may also be recumbent and overturned folds. The Jura Mountains are an example of fold mountains.
iPhone is a line of smartphones designed and marketed by Apple Inc. The iPhone line of products use Apple’s iOS mobile operating system software.
The first-generation iPhone was released on June 29, 2007, and multiple new hardware iterations with new iOS releases have been released since.
The user interface is built around the device’s multi-touch screen, including a virtual keyboard. The iPhone has Wi-Fi and can connect to cellular networks.
An iPhone can shoot video (though this was not a standard feature until the iPhone 3GS), take photos, play music, send and receive email, browse the web, send and receive text messages, follow GPS navigation, record notes, perform mathematical calculations, and receive visual voicemail.
Other functionality, such as video games, reference works, and social networking, can be enabled by downloading mobile apps.
As of January 2017, Apple’s App Store contained more than 2.2 million applications available for the iPhone.
- History and availability
History and availability
Development of what was to become the iPhone began in 2004, when Apple started to gather a team of 1,000 employees (including Jonathan Ive, the designer behind the iMac and iPod) to work on the highly confidential “Project Purple”.
Apple CEO Steve Jobs steered the original focus away from a tablet (which Apple eventually revisited in the form of the iPad) towards a phone.
Apple created the device during a secretive collaboration with Cingular Wireless (which became AT&T Mobility) at the time—at an estimated development cost of US$150 million over thirty months
Sales and profits
Apple sold 6.1 million first generation iPhone units over five quarters.
Sales in the fourth quarter of 2008 temporarily surpassed those of Research In Motion’s (RIM) BlackBerry sales of 5.2 million units, which briefly made Apple the third largest mobile phone manufacturer by revenue, after Nokia and Samsung (however, some of this income is deferred.
Recorded sales grew steadily thereafter, and by the end of fiscal year 2010, a total of 73.5 million iPhones had been sold.
Typography is the art and technique of arranging type to make written language legible, readable, and appealing when displayed.
The arrangement of type involves selecting typefaces, point sizes, line lengths, line-spacing (leading), and letter-spacing (tracking), and adjusting the space between pairs of letters.
The term typography is also applied to the style, arrangement, and appearance of the letters, numbers, and symbols created by the process.
Type design is a closely related craft, sometimes considered part of typography; most typographers do not design typefaces, and some type designers do not consider themselves typographers.
Typography also may be used as a decorative device, unrelated to communication of information.
- Experimental typeface uses
- Text typefaces
The word “typography” in English comes from the Greek roots τύπος typos = “impression” and -γραφία -graphia = “writing”.
Although typically applied to printed, published, broadcast, and reproduced materials in contemporary times, all words, letters, symbols, and numbers written alongside the earliest naturalistic drawings by humans may be called typography.
The word, typography, is derived from the Greek words τύπος typos “form” or “impression” and γράφειν graphein “to write”, traces its origins to the first punches and dies used to make seals and currency in ancient times, which ties the concept to printing.
The design of typefaces has developed alongside the development of typesetting systems.
Although typography has evolved significantly from its origins, it is a largely conservative art that tends to cleave closely to tradition. This is because legibility is paramount, and so the typefaces that are the most readable usually are retained.
In addition, the evolution of typography is inextricably intertwined with lettering by hand and related art forms, especially formal styles, which thrived for centuries preceding typography, and so the evolution of typography must be discussed with reference to this relationship.
In contemporary use, the practice and study of typography include a broad range, covering all aspects of letter design and application, both mechanical (typesetting, type design, and typefaces) and manual (handwriting and calligraphy).
Typographical elements may appear in a wide variety of situations, including:
- Display typography (described below)
- Maps and labels
- Vehicle instrument panels
- As a component of industrial design—type on household appliances, pens, and wristwatches, for example
- As a component in modern poetry (see, for example, the poetry of e. e. cummings)
Since digitization, typographical uses have spread to a wider range of applications, appearing on web pages, LCD mobile phone screens, and hand-held video games.
Traditionally, text is composed to create a readable, coherent, and visually satisfying typeface that works invisibly, without the awareness of the reader.
Even distribution of typeset material, with a minimum of distractions and anomalies, is aimed at producing clarity and transparency.
Choice of typeface(s) is the primary aspect of text typography—prose fiction, non-fiction, editorial, educational, religious, scientific, spiritual, and commercial writing all have differing characteristics and requirements of appropriate typefaces (and their fonts or styles).
For historic material, established text typefaces frequently are chosen according to a scheme of historical genre acquired by a long process of accretion, with considerable overlap among historical periods.
Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, the seeds of berries from certain Coffea species.
The genus Coffea is native to tropical Africa (specifically having its origin in Ethiopia and Sudan) and Madagascar, the Comoros, Mauritius, and Réunion in the Indian Ocean.
Coffee plants are now cultivated in over 70 countries, primarily in the equatorial regions of the Americas, Southeast Asia, India, and Africa. The two most commonly grown are C. arabica and C. robusta.
Once ripe, coffee berries are picked, processed, and dried.
Dried coffee seeds (referred to as “beans”) are roasted to varying degrees, depending on the desired flavor. Roasted beans are ground and then brewed with near-boiling water to produce the beverage known as coffee.
Coffee is darkly colored, bitter, slightly acidic and has a stimulating effect in humans, primarily due to its caffeine content.[medical citation needed] It is one of the most popular drinks in the world, and it can be prepared and presented in a variety of ways (e.g., espresso, French press, café latte).
It is usually served hot, although iced coffee is a popular alternative.
Clinical studies indicate that moderate coffee consumption is benign or mildly beneficial in healthy adults, with continuing research on whether long-term consumption lowers the risk of some diseases, although those long-term studies are of generally poor quality.
The word “coffee” entered the English language in 1582 via the Dutch koffie, borrowed from the Ottoman Turkish kahve, borrowed in turn from the Arabic qahwah.
The Arabic word qahwah was traditionally held to refer to a type of wine whose etymology is given by Arab lexicographers as deriving from the verb qahiya (قَهِيَ), “to lack hunger”, in reference to the drink’s reputation as an appetite suppressant.
It has also been proposed that the source may be the Proto-Central Semitic root q-h-h meaning “dark”
According to legend, ancestors of today’s Oromo people in a region of Kaffa in Ethiopia were believed to have been the first to recognize the energizing effect of the coffee plant, though no direct evidence has been found indicating where in Africa coffee grew or who among the native populations might have used it as a stimulant or even known about it, earlier than the 17th century.
The story of Kaldi, the 9th-century Ethiopian goatherd who discovered coffee when he noticed how excited his goats became after eating the beans from a coffee plant, did not appear in writing until 1671 and is probably apocryphal.
The earliest credible evidence of coffee-drinking or knowledge of the coffee tree appears in the middle of the 15th century in the accounts of Ahmed al-Ghaffar in Yemen.
It was here in Arabia that coffee seeds were first roasted and brewed, in a similar way to how it is now prepared. Coffee was used by Sufi circles to stay awake for their religious rituals.
Accounts differ on the origin of coffee (seeds) prior to its appearance in Yemen. One account credits Muhammad Ibn Sa’d for bringing the beverage to Aden from the African coast.
An identity document (also called a piece of identification or ID, or colloquially as papers) is any document which may be used to prove a person’s identity.
If issued in a small, standard credit card size form, it is usually called an identity card (IC, ID card, Citizen Card), or Passport Card.
Some countries issue formal identity documents, as national identification cards which may be compulsory or non-compulsory, while others may require identity verification using regional identification or informal documents.
When the identity document incorporates a person’s photograph, it may be called photo ID.
In the absence of a formal identity document, a driver’s license may be accepted in many countries for identity verification.
Some countries do not accept driver’s licenses for identification, often because in those countries they do not expire as documents and can be old or easily forged. Most countries accept passports as a form of identification.
Some countries require all people to have an identity document available at any time.
Many countries require all foreigners to have a passport or occasionally a national identity card from their country available at any time if they do not have a residence permit in the country.
- National policies
A version of the passport considered to be the earliest identity document inscribed into law was introduced by King Henry V of England with the Safe Conducts Act 1414.
For the next 500 years and before World War I, most people did not have or need an identity document.
Photographic identification appeared in 1876 but it did not become widely used until the early 20th century when photographs became part of passports and other ID documents such as driver’s licenses, all of which came to be referred to as “photo IDs”.
Both Australia and Great Britain, for example, introduced the requirement for a photographic passport in 1915 after the so-called Lody spy scandal.
Law enforcement officials claim that identity cards make surveillance and the search for criminals easier and consequently support the universal adoption of identity cards.
In countries that don’t have a national identity card, there is, however, concern about the projected large costs and potential abuse of high-tech smartcards.
In many countries – and especially English-speaking countries such as Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States – there are no government-issued compulsory identity cards to all citizens.
Ireland has the Public services card although it is a not considered as a national identity card by the Department of Employment Affairs and Social Protection (DEASP).
The domestic dog is a member of the genus Canis (canines), which forms part of the wolf-like canids, and is the most widely abundant terrestrial carnivore.
The dog and the extant gray wolf are sister taxa as modern wolves are not closely related to the wolves that were first domesticated, which implies that the direct ancestor of the dog is extinct.
The dog was the first species to be domesticated and has been selectively bred over millennia for various behaviors, sensory capabilities, and physical attributes.
The term “domestic dog” is generally used for both domesticated and feral varieties. The English word dog comes from Middle English dogge, from Old English docga, a “powerful dog breed”.
The term may derive from Proto-Germanic *dukkōn, represented in Old English finger-docce (“finger-muscle”) or (as suggested by Piotr Gąsiorowski) the Old English colour adjective dox, meaning “brown” or “tan”.
In either case, the word seems to have been derived via the diminutive suffix -ga also seen in frogga “frog”, picga “pig”, stagga “stag”, wicga “beetle, worm”, among others.
- The term dog typically is applied both to the species (or subspecies) as a whole, and any adult male member of the same.
An adult female is a bitch.
- An adult male capable of reproduction is a stud.
- An adult female capable of reproduction is a brood bitch, or brood mother.
- Immature males or females (that is, animals that are incapable of reproduction) are pups or puppies.
- A group of pups from the same gestation period is a litter.
- The father of a litter is a sire. It is possible for one litter to have multiple sires.
- The mother of a litter is a dam.
- A group of any three or more adults is a pack.
In 1999, a study of mitochondrial DNA indicated that the domestic dog may have originated from multiple grey wolf populations, with the dingo and New Guinea singing dog “breeds” having developed at a time when human populations were more isolated from each other.
In the third edition of Mammal Species of the World published in 2005, the mammalogist W. Christopher Wozencraft listed under the wolf Canis lupus its wild subspecies, and proposed two additional subspecies: “familiaris Linneaus, 1758 ” and “dingo Meyer, 1793”.
Wozencraft included hallstromi – the New Guinea singing dog – as a taxonomic synonym for the dingo. Wozencraft referred to the mDNA study as a basis for his decisions.The inclusion of familiaris and dingo by Wozencraft under a “domestic dog” clade has been noted by other zoologists. This classification by Wozencraft is debated by zoologists.